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Enhanced Collaborative Teaching Model (ECTM) 

1. Initial Planning Meeting

  • Objective: Establish goals, align expectations, and prepare for co-observation.

  • Research Support: Effective professional development begins with clear objectives and a shared understanding among participants (Desimone, 2009). Establishing goals upfront is crucial for focused observations and meaningful outcomes (Guskey, 2000).

2. Co-Observation & Immediate Analysis

  • Objective: Engage in active classroom observation to gather insights and identify real-time teaching and learning dynamics.

  • Research Support: Classroom observations that focus on specific, agreed-upon goals can enhance the feedback quality and the professional growth of teachers (Pianta & Hamre, 2009). Immediate analysis allows for the rapid identification and discussion of teaching strategies and challenges (Knight, 2007).

3. Co-Planning

  • Objective: Develop collaborative lesson plans that incorporate observed strategies and address identified needs.

  • Research Support: Collaborative planning has been shown to support the implementation of effective teaching strategies and improve student outcomes by leveraging diverse expertise (Darling-Hammond, 2012; Goddard, Goddard, & Tschannen-Moran, 2007).

4. Co-Teaching

  • Objective: Implement co-planned lessons, allowing for shared teaching experiences and real-time adjustments.

  • Research Support: Co-teaching enables teachers to model strategies, share expertise, and support each other’s professional growth, positively impacting student learning (Friend & Cook, 2010).

5. Reflection

  • Objective: Conduct reflective discussions to assess the effectiveness of implemented strategies and identify areas for future improvement.

  • Research Support: Reflection is a critical component of professional learning, enabling teachers to evaluate their practice and make informed improvements (Schön, 1983; Danielson, 2016).


  • Desimone, L. (2009). Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: Toward better conceptualizations and measures. Educational Researcher.

  • Guskey, T.R. (2000). Evaluating Professional Development. Corwin Press.

  • Pianta, R.C., & Hamre, B.K. (2009). Classroom processes and positive youth development: Conceptualizing, measuring, and improving the capacity of interactions between teachers and students. New Directions for Youth Development.

  • Knight, J. (2007). Instructional Coaching: A Partnership Approach to Improving Instruction. Corwin Press.

  • Darling-Hammond, L. (2012). Powerful Teacher Education: Lessons from Exemplary Programs. Jossey-Bass.

  • Goddard, Y.L., Goddard, R.D., & Tschannen-Moran, M. (2007). A theoretical and empirical investigation of teacher collaboration for school improvement and student achievement in public elementary schools. Teachers College Record.

  • Friend, M., & Cook, L. (2010). Interactions: Collaboration Skills for School Professionals. Pearson.

  • Schön, D.A. (1983). The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think In Action. Basic Books.

  • Danielson, C. (2016). The Framework for Teaching Evaluation Instrument. The Danielson Group.

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